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22.10.2012 20:43:55
23.08.2011
03.11.2009
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11.1. Conversion of kinetic energy of the flow of water into useful work (Hydrodynamic Test)

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Characteristics of the river Lubich:
- the width of the spot test - 20 meters;
- depth - 0.2 m to 1.5 m;
- flow rate - from 0.3 m / s to 0.67 m / sec.
During the test was to test the installation of water flow has been studied the kinematics of the movement of work items, the data for the calculation and manufacturing of chassis dynamometer.
In mid-August 2010 tests on the river Lubich was stopped due to the fact that the river is heavily shoaled. 

The second cycle was carried out on hydro channel number 2 discharge of treated wastewater Bortnichskoy Aeration Station (BAS), Kiev during November - December 2010
Measurement of power developed on the shaft of a gear set VSU-2, was carried out using a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer scheme is shown in Fig. 19. 

Flow characteristics:
- speed ​​- 1.0 m / s;
- depth - 1.5 - 2.5 m;
- width - 4.0 m. 

Section of the channel: 4 * 4 sq.m.

The length of the crank during hydrodynamic tests Lcr = 193 mm. and the amplitude of the reciprocating movement of the working elements of the "A" in accordance with the formula (7). 

A = 2 *Lcr  = 386 mm.

Work items are in the form of plates of rectangular shape with the following parameters: 

- width b = 410 mm.
- the height h = 510 mm. - During hydrodynamic tests
- the thickness t = 2,0 mm. 

The area of ​​the work item in accordance with the formula (11) 

Sw.i. = 0.21 sq.m. 

The area of ​​contact with the air flow (cross-sectional area that interacts with the air flow, defined by (limited) the reciprocating movement of the working elements perpendicular to the flow of Fig. 6) fluctuations in the two series of work items in accordance with formula (12) 

Sc = 0.394 sq.m. 

The area of ​​contact with the air flow of a series of work items: 

S = 2Lcr * h w.i.                                                                                                                  (21) 

S = 0.386 m * 0.51 m = 0.197 m² 

The length of the connecting rod - 290 mm.
The diameter of gear (max) - 300 mm. 

Work items undergo vibration motion. There is a removal of useful work.
Location of work items on the platform device WHD-2 during hydrodynamic tests and kinematics of movements similar to the location and kinematics of the work items during the aerodynamic testing (subsection 7).
In studying the performance of pilot plant WHD-2 with a different number of work items in the stream of water all transmission gears are engaged. 

Formulas for the calculation. 

Capacity of water flow was calculated by the formula (9) 

N гп = , W

where
q = 1000 kg / cubic meter - the density of water;
S - the area through which a stream of water, working on work items, meters;
Vгп - the rate of water flow channel BAS.
Vгп = 1.0 m / sec.

The contact area of ​​two series of work items with a water flow according to formula (12): 

S = 4Lcr * h w.i.
S = 0.772 m * 0.51 m = 0.39 sq.m. 

Then the power of water flow in contact with two lines of work items
N гп = 195 W

Efficiency pilot plant WHD-2 was determined in accordance with the formula (11). 

Ke = 

where Np - power generated by the plant, W;
N n - water flow power, W. 

Tests were conducted in conjunction with water flow 8, 4, and a work item.
To increase the speed of the shaft generator was applied step-up gear with a ratio of i = 8,8. 

In the course of experiments related to the definition of the interaction under study work items, performing as part of an array of reciprocating and rotational oscillations, with water flow, change the number of work items and study the kinematics of movements of the working elements.
Measured parameters: the normal force pressure at the point of application of force F on the surface of the gear, measured on the scale of the dynamometer, speed gear (crank shaft)
Calculated parameters: power generated by setting the WHD-2, the efficiency of the installation of WHD-2 interaction with its work items with the water flow depending on the number of work items. 

Changing the maximum power generated by the installation of WHD-2, depending on the number of work items shown in Fig. 24.

When testing the installation of WHD-2 with eight work items will eat the maximum power has not been made because they do not have enough scale dynamometer. Therefore, in calculating power generated by the installation of WHD-2 interaction with the water flow of eight work items that were taken as possible indications of the scale dynamometer, in this connection as shown in Fig. 24 the maximum power generated by the installation of the eight work items can be considered arbitrary.
From the above graph shows an increase in power in proportion to the number of work items, interacting with the water flow. 

Changing the maximum efficiency of the installation of WHD-2 depending on the number of work items shown in Fig. 25. 

The efficiency of the installation with eight work items can also be considered arbitrary, since for the measurement of maximum power generated by the installation of WHD-2 interaction with the water flow of eight work items that did not have the scale of the dynamometer.
When calculating the coefficients of performance capacity of the water flow is in contact with a working element and equal to 97.5 W, was two times lower than the power of water flow in contact with four or eight work items and equal to 195 W.
The calculation of efficiency based on a formula (11).
From the above graph shows an increase in the efficiency of the installation of VSU-2 in proportion to the number of work items, interacting with the water flow. 

Change in the intensity of rotation of the shaft of the generator set VSU-2 with eight work items in contact with the water flow depending on the power output is shown in Fig. 26. 

Rent a maximum capacity of the installation WHD-2 was restricted by a dynamometer.
With the increase in power output shaft of the generator speed to drop. 

Graphs of the intensity of the shaft of the generator set WHD-2 with four working parts in direct contact with the water flow depending on power output, withdrawn from the shaft of the generator and different kinematic motion of the work items shown in Fig. 27. 

The right graph shows the change in intensity of the shaft of the generator set WHD-2 as a function of power output at the location of the work items in two rows, two working elements in each row.
Capacity of water flow in contact with two rows of work items is equal to 195 W
Phase angle between the axes of cranks in a row is:
- between 1 and 2 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 2 and 3 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 3 and 4 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 4 and 1 work items - 180 degrees.
Phase angle between the axes of cranks in adjacent rows is equal to 180 degrees. 

The left graph shows the change in intensity of the shaft of the generator set WHD-2 as a function of power output at the location of the work items in a row.
Capacity of water flow in contact with a number of work items that are equal to 97.5 W
Phase angle between the axes of cranks in a row is:
- between 1 and 2 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 2 and 3 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 3 and 4 work items - 300 degrees;
- between 4 and 1 work items - 180 degrees.
The distance between the working elements - 456 mm.

In this case, the diagram of the apparatus of WHD-2 with four work items, arranged in two rows, is preferred. That is, positive work UAI during the interaction of work items with the water flow in the array in the first embodiment is more effective than the second. Apparently, the main factor in this case is the impact of fluctuating UAI adjacent to an array of objects to each other. 

Schedule of changes in the intensity of rotation of the shaft of the generator set WHD-2 with a single work item, depending on power output
interaction with the water flow is shown in Fig. 28 ("Flutter" single element oscillating in water flow). 

From the graph that the maximum power in the interaction with the water flow unit WHD-2 with a working element generates at 150 rev / min rotation of the shaft of the generator at a  capacity of water flow in contact with the working element, equal to 97.5 W.
In addition, this chart is a clear demonstration of the possibility of obtaining the flutter of a single item in the stream of water.

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